The NAT aka Network Address Translation table allows devices on a private network to use a public network like the Internet.

There is only a single entry point between the public network and the private network, and that single entry point is usually a WiFi router. The router itself has a public IP address, but the devices are hidden behind the router only have private IP addresses with the router's gateway address like 192.168.1.1

When data packets move from the private network to the public network, those private IP addresses need to be translated into public IPs that are compatible with the public wireless network. Same is the case with the data packets coming in from public IP to private IP.

How NAT Works?

The NAT is exactly like it sounds: a table of network address translation, where each network address is in a row and basically is a kind of mapping from one private address to one public address.

Basically, there are various devices that are NAT-enabled, but mostly routers are commonly used.

When the router receives a request like Netgear Router login from a device present on the same private network, the data packets are set aside so that the cyclic process can be easily made.

First of all, each data packet “Source IP” is changed from the private IP to the public IP address including other minor details too. The Netgear router creates a NAT table entry. To do this, it needs to know the destination address of data packets. When a data packet from outside comes from the public network to the private network, the Netgear router compares it with the NAT table entry to know which private device it is meant to go.

Potential Issues with NAT

Every entry within a NAT table requires some certain amount of memory to save connection details. In theory, if you have a high range of active connections, the NAT table could fill up. If that happens, current network connections will not be affected but new network connections will be rejected.

For internet traffic, a typical NAT table entry requires nearly 160 bytes. That is negligible. To put it into the big picture: 100,000 NAT entries of the side about 15MB of RAM will take.

In simple words, the NAT table rarely fills up and bottleneck for a poorly performing home WiFi router.

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Every single packet that passes out from the private network needs to be translated, and every single packet that comes from the public network necessarily to be translated. Each individual translation may be simple but some heavy use may add restriction and fails routerlogin.net website to open.